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After the war, the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia was established, consisting of the Rhineland and Westphalia.

Bochum is located in that state. In the postwar period, Bochum began developing as a cultural centre of the Ruhr area.

Since the seventies, Bochum's industry has moved from heavy industry to the service sector. Between and , the coal mines all closed.

Other industries, such as automotive , compensated for the loss of jobs. The Opel Astra is assembled at the Opel Bochum plant ; however, by , the factory was in serious financial difficulties [5] and in December , Opel announced that it would stop vehicle production at the Bochum plant in In the course of a comprehensive community reform in , Wattenscheid , a formerly independent city, was integrated into the city of Bochum.

A local referendum against the integration failed. In , the new synagogue of the Jewish community of Bochum, Herne und Hattingen was opened.

In , Nokia closed down its production plant, causing the loss of thousands of jobs, both at the plant and at local suppliers.

On 9 November , Kristallnacht , the Jewish citizens of Bochum were attacked. The synagogue was set on fire and there was rioting against Jewish citizens.

The first Jews from Bochum were deported to Nazi concentration camps and many Jewish institutions and homes were destroyed.

Some Jewish citizens are known by name to have been killed in the Holocaust , including 19 who were younger than 16 years old.

Joseph Klirsfeld was Bochum's rabbi at this time. He and his wife fled to Palestine. In December , the Jewish elementary school teacher Else Hirsch began organising groups of children and adolescents to be sent to the Netherlands and England , sending ten groups in all.

Many Jewish children and those from other persecuted groups were taken in by Dutch families and thereby saved from abduction or deportation and death.

Because the Ruhr region was an area of high residential density and a centre for the manufacture of weapons, it was a major target in the war.

Women with young children, school children and the homeless fled or were evacuated to safer areas, leaving cities largely deserted to the arms industry, coal mines and steel plants and those unable to leave.

Bochum was first bombed heavily in May and June On 4 November , in an attack involving British bombers, the steel plant, Bochumer Verein, was hit.

One of the largest steel plants in Germany, [14] more than 10, high-explosive and , incendiary bombs were stored there, setting off a conflagration that destroyed the surrounding neighbourhoods.

The town centre of Bochum was a strategic target during the Oil Campaign. In air raids on Bochum, over 1, bombs were dropped on Bochum and Gelsenkirchen.

Most of the remaining buildings were damaged, many with only one usable room. Only 1, houses in Bochum remained undamaged after the war.

Only two of schools remained unscathed; others were totally destroyed. A resident of neighbouring Essen was quoted on 23 April as saying, "Today, I used up my last potato The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Bochum in April After the war, Bochum was occupied by the British , who established two camps to house people displaced by the war.

The majority of them were former Polish Zwangsarbeiter , forced labourers , many of them from the Bochumer Verein.

One found in October in Bochum town centre led to the evacuation of and involved hundreds of emergency workers.

Bochum has a municipal zoo, a large municipal park and a number of other gardens and parks. The Ruhr University Botanical Gardens has thousands of plants from all over the world.

The Geological Garden was the first of its kind in Germany. In , the property came under environmental protection and a decade later was turned into a geological garden.

Instead, the individual city boroughs and urban districts of the Ruhr grew independently of one another during the Industrial Revolution.

The population density of the central Ruhr is about 2, inhabitants per square kilometre about 5, per square mile —low compared to other German cities.

Between the constituent urban areas are relatively open suburbs and some open land with agricultural fields. In some places, the borders between cities in the central Ruhr are unrecognizable due to continuous development across them.

Replanting of brownfield land has created new parks and recreation areas. The Emscher Landschaftspark Emscher Landscape Park lies along the river Emscher , formerly virtually an open sewer, parts of which have undergone natural restoration.

This park connects strips of parkland running from north to south, which were developed through regional planning in the s, to form a green belt between the Ruhr cities from east to west.

During the Middle Ages, much of the region that was later called the Ruhrgebiet was situated in the County of Mark , the Duchies of Cleves and Berg and the territories of the bishop of Münster and the archbishop of Cologne.

The region included some villages and castles, and was mainly agrarian: The free imperial city of Dortmund was the trading and cultural centre, lying on the Hellweg , an important east-west trading route, that also brought prosperity to the town of Duisburg.

Both towns were members of the Hanseatic League. The development of the region into an urbanized industrial area started in the late 18th century with the early industrialisation in the nearby Wupper Valley in the Bergisches Land.

By around , hundreds of water-powered mills were producing textiles, lumber, shingles and iron in automated processes here. And in even more workshops in the hills, highly skilled workers manufactured knives, tools, weapons and harnesses, using water, coal and charcoal.

History has no established name for this phase of the industrial revolution, but one could call it the early water-powered industrial revolution.

As the machines became bigger and moved from water power to steam power, locally mined coal and charcoal became expensive and there was not enough of it.

The Bergische industry ordered more and more coal from the new coal mining area along the Ruhr. By , there were almost coal mines in operation in the Ruhr area, in and around the central cities of Duisburg, Essen, Bochum and Dortmund.

The coal was exported or processed in coking ovens into coke , used in blast furnaces , producing iron and steel.

In this period the name Ruhrgebiet became common. Before the coal deposits along the Ruhr were exhausted, the mining industry moved northward to the Emscher and finally to the Lippe, drilling ever deeper mines as it went.

Locks built at Mülheim on the Ruhr led to the expansion of Mülheim as a port. With the construction of the Cologne-Minden railway in the late 19th century, several iron works were built within the borders of the present-day city of Oberhausen.

The population climbed rapidly. Towns with only to people in the early 19th century grew in the following years to over , Skilled mineworkers were recruited from other regions to the Ruhr's mines and steel mills and unskilled people started to move in.

Many of them were Polish speakers and they were treated as second class citizens. In this led to a revolt in Herne of young Polish workers, who later established a Workers' Union.

Skilled workers in the mines were often housed in "miners' colonies", built by the mining firms. By the end of the Prussian Kingdom in , over 3 million people lived in the Ruhrgebiet and the new coal-mining district had become the largest industrial region of Europe.

At a big Essen company, F. They were partly women, partly forced labourers. The January Uprising in became popular among the working class in the Ruhr, and the region quickly turned communist.

But when the uprising was snuffed out by the Freikorps , everything seemed to be fine until the Kapp government then fought the Weimar government, until the Weimar government came out victorious, but during that time, a return to an autocratic state was seen as the only way forward.

Large parts of the working class went out on strike, but in the Ruhr, striking workers successfully managed to take government buildings, shocking the rest of Germany.

An armed revolt was then instigated, and the Red Guard then installed a branch in the Ruhr. The people there declared the Ruhr an independent, socialist republic, but the Freikorp came back into the scene and put down the movement.

In March , French and Belgian troops occupied Duisburg, which under the Treaty of Versailles formed part of the demilitarized Rhineland.

In January the whole Ruhrgebiet was occupied as a reprisal after Germany failed to fulfill World War I reparation payments as agreed in the Versailles Treaty.

The German government responded with " passive resistance ", letting workers and civil servants refuse orders and instructions by the occupation forces.

Production and transport came to a standstill and the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and ruined public finances in Germany and France, as well as several other countries.

Passive resistance was called off in late , allowing Germany to implement a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan , which led to the withdrawal of the French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr in However, the occupation of the Ruhr caused several direct and indirect consequences on the German economy and government.

Due to the lack of production caused by foreign occupation, the German economy lacked the domestic abilities to pay war reparations without intentionally causing inflation.

Moreover, the government became increasingly unpopular due to its "passive resistance" to German production. The halt in domestic production made war reparations impossible to pay.

On 7 March , [10] Adolf Hitler took a massive gamble by sending 30, troops into the Rhineland. As Hitler and other Nazis admitted, the French army alone could have destroyed the Wehrmacht.

All restraint on German rearmament could now be removed, and was. France's eastern allies the Soviet Union , Poland , Czechoslovakia , Romania and Yugoslavia concluded that since the French refused to defend their own border, they certainly would not stand up for their allies in the East.

Hitler could now continue eroding the alliance system that France had built since The devastating bombing raids of Dortmund on 12 March with 1, aircraft — Lancasters, Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos — was a record to a single target in the whole of World War II.

More than 4, tons of bombs were dropped through the city centre and the south of the city. After the war, the Level of Industry plans for Germany abolished all German munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them and severely restricted civilian industries of military potential.

The French Monnet Plan pushed for an internationalization of the area, [20] and the subsequent Ruhr Agreement was imposed as a condition for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Increased German control of the area was limited by the pooling of German coal and steel into the multinational European Coal and Steel Community in The nearby Saar region , containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, was handed over to economic administration by France as a protectorate in and did not politically return to Germany until January , with economic reintegration occurring two years later.

Parallel to the question of political control of the Ruhr, the Allies tried to decrease German industrial potential by limitations on production and dismantling of factories and steel plants, predominantly in the Ruhr.

By , after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants in the west, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.

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Bochum acquired city status, incorporating neighbouring towns and villages. Additional population gains came from immigration, primarily from Poland.

After the war, the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia was established, consisting of the Rhineland and Westphalia. Bochum is located in that state.

In the postwar period, Bochum began developing as a cultural centre of the Ruhr area. Since the seventies, Bochum's industry has moved from heavy industry to the service sector.

Between and , the coal mines all closed. Other industries, such as automotive , compensated for the loss of jobs.

The Opel Astra is assembled at the Opel Bochum plant ; however, by , the factory was in serious financial difficulties [5] and in December , Opel announced that it would stop vehicle production at the Bochum plant in In the course of a comprehensive community reform in , Wattenscheid , a formerly independent city, was integrated into the city of Bochum.

A local referendum against the integration failed. In , the new synagogue of the Jewish community of Bochum, Herne und Hattingen was opened. In , Nokia closed down its production plant, causing the loss of thousands of jobs, both at the plant and at local suppliers.

On 9 November , Kristallnacht , the Jewish citizens of Bochum were attacked. The synagogue was set on fire and there was rioting against Jewish citizens.

The first Jews from Bochum were deported to Nazi concentration camps and many Jewish institutions and homes were destroyed. Some Jewish citizens are known by name to have been killed in the Holocaust , including 19 who were younger than 16 years old.

Joseph Klirsfeld was Bochum's rabbi at this time. He and his wife fled to Palestine. In December , the Jewish elementary school teacher Else Hirsch began organising groups of children and adolescents to be sent to the Netherlands and England , sending ten groups in all.

Many Jewish children and those from other persecuted groups were taken in by Dutch families and thereby saved from abduction or deportation and death.

Because the Ruhr region was an area of high residential density and a centre for the manufacture of weapons, it was a major target in the war.

Women with young children, school children and the homeless fled or were evacuated to safer areas, leaving cities largely deserted to the arms industry, coal mines and steel plants and those unable to leave.

Bochum was first bombed heavily in May and June On 4 November , in an attack involving British bombers, the steel plant, Bochumer Verein, was hit. One of the largest steel plants in Germany, [14] more than 10, high-explosive and , incendiary bombs were stored there, setting off a conflagration that destroyed the surrounding neighbourhoods.

The town centre of Bochum was a strategic target during the Oil Campaign. In air raids on Bochum, over 1, bombs were dropped on Bochum and Gelsenkirchen.

Most of the remaining buildings were damaged, many with only one usable room. Only 1, houses in Bochum remained undamaged after the war.

Only two of schools remained unscathed; others were totally destroyed. A resident of neighbouring Essen was quoted on 23 April as saying, "Today, I used up my last potato The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Bochum in April After the war, Bochum was occupied by the British , who established two camps to house people displaced by the war.

The majority of them were former Polish Zwangsarbeiter , forced labourers , many of them from the Bochumer Verein. One found in October in Bochum town centre led to the evacuation of and involved hundreds of emergency workers.

Bochum has a municipal zoo, a large municipal park and a number of other gardens and parks. The Ruhr University Botanical Gardens has thousands of plants from all over the world.

Name VfL Bochum e. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.

In anderen Sprachen Links hinzufügen. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Oktober um Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen.

The January Uprising in became popular among the working class in the Ruhr, and the region quickly turned communist. But when the uprising was snuffed out by the Freikorps , everything seemed to be fine until the Kapp government then fought the Weimar government, until the Weimar government came out victorious, but during that time, a return to an autocratic state was seen as the only way forward.

Large parts of the working class went out on strike, but in the Ruhr, striking workers successfully managed to take government buildings, shocking the rest of Germany.

An armed revolt was then instigated, and the Red Guard then installed a branch in the Ruhr. The people there declared the Ruhr an independent, socialist republic, but the Freikorp came back into the scene and put down the movement.

In March , French and Belgian troops occupied Duisburg, which under the Treaty of Versailles formed part of the demilitarized Rhineland.

In January the whole Ruhrgebiet was occupied as a reprisal after Germany failed to fulfill World War I reparation payments as agreed in the Versailles Treaty.

The German government responded with " passive resistance ", letting workers and civil servants refuse orders and instructions by the occupation forces.

Production and transport came to a standstill and the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and ruined public finances in Germany and France, as well as several other countries.

Passive resistance was called off in late , allowing Germany to implement a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan , which led to the withdrawal of the French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr in However, the occupation of the Ruhr caused several direct and indirect consequences on the German economy and government.

Due to the lack of production caused by foreign occupation, the German economy lacked the domestic abilities to pay war reparations without intentionally causing inflation.

Moreover, the government became increasingly unpopular due to its "passive resistance" to German production. The halt in domestic production made war reparations impossible to pay.

On 7 March , [10] Adolf Hitler took a massive gamble by sending 30, troops into the Rhineland. As Hitler and other Nazis admitted, the French army alone could have destroyed the Wehrmacht.

All restraint on German rearmament could now be removed, and was. France's eastern allies the Soviet Union , Poland , Czechoslovakia , Romania and Yugoslavia concluded that since the French refused to defend their own border, they certainly would not stand up for their allies in the East.

Hitler could now continue eroding the alliance system that France had built since The devastating bombing raids of Dortmund on 12 March with 1, aircraft — Lancasters, Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos — was a record to a single target in the whole of World War II.

More than 4, tons of bombs were dropped through the city centre and the south of the city. After the war, the Level of Industry plans for Germany abolished all German munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them and severely restricted civilian industries of military potential.

The French Monnet Plan pushed for an internationalization of the area, [20] and the subsequent Ruhr Agreement was imposed as a condition for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Increased German control of the area was limited by the pooling of German coal and steel into the multinational European Coal and Steel Community in The nearby Saar region , containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, was handed over to economic administration by France as a protectorate in and did not politically return to Germany until January , with economic reintegration occurring two years later.

Parallel to the question of political control of the Ruhr, the Allies tried to decrease German industrial potential by limitations on production and dismantling of factories and steel plants, predominantly in the Ruhr.

By , after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants in the west, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.

After , Germany was hard hit by a worldwide economic crisis, soaring oil prices, and increasing unemployment, which jumped from , in to 1.

The Ruhr region was hardest hit, as the easy-to-reach coal mines became exhausted, and German coal was no longer competitive.

Likewise the Ruhr steel industry went into sharp decline, as its prices were undercut by lower-cost suppliers such as Japan. The welfare system provided a safety net for the large number of unemployed workers, and many factories reduced their labor force and began to concentrate on high-profit specialty items.

As demand for coal decreased after , the area went through phases of structural crisis see steel crisis and industrial diversification, first developing traditional heavy industry, then moving into service industries and high technology.

The air and water pollution of the area are largely a thing of the past although some issues take a long time to solve. The use of the term "Ruhr" for the industrial region started in Britain only after World War I, when French and Belgian troops had occupied the Ruhr district and seized its prime industrial assets in lieu of unpaid reparations in A page publication seems to be responsible for the use of "Ruhr" as a short form of the then more common "Ruhr District" or "Ruhr Valley": Yet "The report of a deputation from the Transport and General Workers' Union which spent a fortnight examining the problems in the Ruhr Valley", published in The Economic Review , Volume 8, , is still using the traditional term.

In the same year, "Objections by the United States to discriminatory regulations on exports from the occupied region of the Ruhr" was published in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States.

Cecil and Philip Hauge Abelson still write in The Ruhr River is only one of half a dozen rivers in the Ruhr district, in addition to the Rhine.

The Rhine itself runs through the heart of the Ruhr district. The name preferred for the region in this dictionary is "Ruhrgebiet", followed by "Ruhr Valley".

The Ruhr has an oceanic climate in spite of its inland position, with mildening winds from the Atlantic travelling over the lowlands to moderate temperature extremes, in spite of its relatively northerly latitude that sees significant variety in daylight hours.

A consequence of the marine influence is a cloudy and wet climate with low sunshine hours. Summers normally average in the low 20s, with winters being somewhat above the freezing point.

The local dialect of German is commonly called Ruhrdeutsch or Ruhrpottdeutsch , although there is really no uniform dialect that justifies designation as a single dialect.

It is rather a working-class sociolect with influences from the various dialects found in the area and changing even with the professions of the workers.

A major common influence stems from the coal mining tradition of the area. For example, quite a few locals prefer to call the Ruhr either "Pott", which is a derivate of "Pütt" pitmen's term for mine ; cp.

During the nineteenth century, the Ruhr attracted up to , ethnic Poles , Masurians and Silesians from East Prussia and Silesia in a migration known as Ostflucht flight from the east.

By , the Ruhrgebiet had around 3,, inhabitants. Most of the new inhabitants came from Eastern Europe, but immigrants also came from France , Ireland , and the United Kingdom.

It has been claimed that immigrants came to the Ruhr from over different countries. Almost all their descendants today speak German as a first language, and for various reasons, they do not identify with their Polish roots and traditions, often their Polish family names only remain as a sign of their past.

The Industrial Heritage Trail German: Route der Industriekultur links tourist attractions related to the European Route of Industrial Heritage in the Ruhr area.

Ruhr is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Ruhr has three major opera houses and more than 10 theaters and stages.

Each year in spring time, there is the Klavier-Festival Ruhr in the Ruhr area with 50 to 80 events of classical and jazz music.

The Ruhr region has with 22 universities and colleges and more than , [35] students, the highest density of further education establishments anywhere in Germany.

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